In the St. Mihiel offensive, the American guns fired a barrage of one million rounds in just four hours. This problem was solved by equipping the field artillery regiments with the French 75mm mle 1897 field gun. The features of other guns were adapted as well. The French Model 1897 75mm cannon was a quick-firing, accurate, and dependable artillery piece that became practically the quintessential Allied cannon in World War I. Range of fire was up to four miles. In the end, all the efforts paid off. Artillery in Britain issued 75mm guns with wooden wheels due to a shortage of The M-3 was replaced late in the war by the M-7 105mm self-propelled gun. It was capable of a high rate of fire and had a gun shield. The primary round was the M48 High Explosive. In the U.S. Army, the postwar Westervelt Board recommended a new 75mm cannon that eventually would come to fruition as the M-1 pack howitzer. It has elevation and traversing mechanisms with handles for the gunner on the left hand side of the gun. Waiting until dawn, the gun crew poured fire into the enemy-held building and leveled it. Secrecy about the new 75 was maintained even after the cannon entered service with the French Army. It was the French Army’s primary field gun during WW1. ), XHTML: You can use these tags:
. Dimensions: 300x200x45 mm (11.8x7.9x1.8 inch) Markings 75 mm Field gun Schneider 75 mm French Field Gun Free Polish Army. There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. Its official French designation was: Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897. But there’s NEVER been anything like THIS before. The French 75mm Field Gun (“Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897”) is widely considered to be the first modern artillery piece. The exterior is over painted in original French Disruptive Camouflage. Anyone wanting access to the museum or kitshop MUST book an appointment. The needs of the war gave rise to some interesting and unconventional uses of the 75 as well. The French 75mm quick firing field gun was a game changing weapon. The Germans used captured examples There have been countless thousands of published works devoted to all or of it. Overall, the M-3 was deemed unsuccessful, largely because it was often used aggressively in direct support of attacking infantry, where its thin armor was a detriment. Firing over open sights, the crew picked the closest machine gun nest, only a few hundred yards away, and fired. The Canadian When America entered the war, the US Army adopted the French design for its field artillery batteries and fielded more than 1900 guns by the war's end. A crash program to develop a stopgap antitank gun mated the 75 to a M-3 halftrack chassis until dedicated tank destroyers were fielded. Half the 3,000 guns used were 75s, which fired two-thirds of all the ammunition expended in the offensive. technological innovation and the first modern artillery system. The Marines used them in both the antitank role, where they proved quite effective against the thinly armored Japanese tanks, and in direct fire support roles, destroying enemy bunkers and fixed emplacements, although in this role the 75’s thin armor and open top exposed it to attack. IBG offers two variants: 1/35 75mm French Field Gun Mle 1897 – Modified 1938 1/35 75mm French Field Gun Mle 1897 – Polish Forces in the West It was introduced in 1897 and was the first fully integrated quick-firing gun. “Misdirected” money from a fund normally used to buy property around Paris paid for the program, to the eventual cost of 300 million francs. The US Army adopted the 75mm in 1918. The enemy machine gun was quickly knocked out of action and the gun crew moved on to the next one. One American unit, Battery F of the 149th Field Artillery Battalion, part of the 42nd Infantry Division, came up with the so-called Pirate Gun. As the man watched, a French battery of four 75s opened fire on the Germans and “demolished the material and killed almost all the cannoneers, directed its fire on the limbers posted in the bottom land and killed a great number of horses.”. When the M1897 or M1897M1 carriages are equipped with handspike, model designation of the M1897 carriage is changed to M1897M1A2 and of the M1897M1 carriage is changed to M1897M1A2. The director, Colonel Albert Deport, took the German gun’s particulars and studied them for three days. 75mm French Field Gun Mle 1897 Modified 1938: Number: 35056: Scale: 1:35 : Type: Full kit : Released: 2019 | Initial release - new tool: Barcode: 5907747901360 (EAN) Topic: 75 mm Field gun Schneider » Cannons (Guns) As the war progressed, the Germans came to have a healthy respect for the 75. Although the French were attempting to design a whole new class of cannon, they did not hesitate to adopt features from other guns they thought might work. A decade earlier, another French officer had designed a 57mm gun with a number of new details. By the time the first American 75s went into action on October 23, 1917, the AEF possessed some 270 Model 1897s, enough to equip at least 64 batteries. If the German troops could surprise their enemies and gain a foothold, they could break the wretched stalemate that paralyzed the Western Front during World War I. Quickly phased out of frontline service, some M-3s were transferred to the British Army, which used them as self-propelled artillery in the headquarters troops of tank squadrons for the remainder of the war. In the U.S. Army, although newer artillery pieces had started to finally come into service, 75s still found use. The 75 was credited with helping the attack succeed with far fewer casualties than usual. Weapons of War — The French 75mm Field Gun. Kit no. The French 75mm Gun Was a Staple of WWI by Warfare History Network A regiment of Bavarian infantry advanced quietly in the dark, rising from … The 75mm gun incorporated the first modern recoil system, a fixed round of ammunition (loaded in one step), and a quick-firing breech. Meanwhile, Model 1897s continued to serve because large numbers were still available or in storage. There is a US manufactured limber for this same gun. It was versatile enough to gain use as an antitank gun, although the tank did not even exist when the cannon was developed in the 1890s. The versatile and mobile French 75mm cannon was a revolutionary design that saw widespread use during both world wars. It was for just this situation that the 75 had been moved up. French artillery in the Great War was dominated by the 75 mm Mle 1897. American factories were still gearing up, and could not provide guns quickly enough for the weapons-starved divisions going overseas. With a direct view of the battlefield, the French battery could pour fire right into the massed German formation. Although some of these features had been incorporated into earlier guns, the 75mm M1897 integrated them into a superior, lightweight field gun. It was designed as an anti-personel weapon, meant to fire large volumes of shrapnel shells at the advancing enemy. This cannon was used to support an attack with direct fire right on the front lines. Initially produced under great secrecy, with details of its design jealously guarded by the French government, the soixante-quinze went on to have a long, worldwide history of service that lasted well into World War II. A regiment of Bavarian infantry advanced quietly in the dark, rising from its own trenches and moving toward the French lines across the desolate no-man’s-land in between. Building N-118, Patricia Road, CFB Shilo. Otherwise, the gunner would be thrown off when the gun jumped. Weight of Projectile: 7.25 kilograms (16 pounds), Detachment: Gun, towing The recoil system was so effective, it was said, that one could set a glass of water on the carriage’s wheel and it would not spill during firing. This required great practice and precision in the reloading process, as the gun would scarcely have finished its recoil motion at a rate of one round per two seconds. The director returned to his arsenal to discuss the design with other engineers and officers; they returned after three days of study, saying the weapon’s design was simply not feasible. A French 75-mm Schneider Mle.1897 Field Gun, adapted for anti-aircraft firing on a "Ziegler" type platform mount. Masks are currently mandatory. Most of the nests were knocked out with just a single round, and soon all the German nests within a radius of 1,000 yards lay silent. The French used the gun until 1940. Development of the Model 1897 began as part of the ongoing artillery arms race in the late 1800s. They adopted the French pattern of equipping their batteries with four guns each instead of six, since the 75’s rate of fire meant that a four-gun battery had the same firepower as a normal six-gun unit. It changed the world more than any other single event in history. The End! Deport’s specification called for a weapon of 75mm caliber, but the heart of the new weapon would be the recoil system. The floating piston was of particular interest to those wanting to copy the gun’s design because of the way it was sealed to prevent the fluid and gas from mixing. 1897(1897 Pattern cannon), was one of most important artillery systems ever. The versatile and mobile French 75mm cannon was a revolutionary design that saw widespread use during both world wars. The firing capability proved both useful and deadly on the Western Front during World War I, where the Allies’ enemies had to fight their way through thick, hellish barrages of 75mm fire. Development began under the strictest secrecy. 1940. The tube was eight feet, three inches long, which equated to 33 calibers (the length of the tube divided by the diameter). French 75 mm Field Gun Facts The field gun was devised by Colonel Albert Deport of the French army It was distinguished from other cannons of its time by recoil system The barrel and breech recoiled on rollers while the gun carriage itself remained in place instead of Even civilians gave testament to its power. In between the wars the US army kept the mle 1897 as their main field gun and these came in a number of variants, the initial versions made in France, versions built under licence in the US, and later versions with slightly different carriages. It was capable of a high rate of fire and had a gun shield. The French Model 1897 75mm cannon was a quick-firing, accurate, and dependable artillery piece that became practically the quintessential Allied cannon in World War I. Guns like the French 75mm generally fire rounds at a low angle while mortars fire rounds only at a high angle. After the war, the Model 1897 soldiered on despite attempts to replace it with a newer design. In the Pacific, the Marine Corps used the 75s to better effect during various campaigns. Summoning the director of the government arsenal at Bourges, Mathieu asked if such a design could be made to work. The 75-mm gun carriage M1897 (French) was designed and manufactured in France. The RCA Museum: 204-765-3000 ext 3570 or 4563. This is the first English-language history of the legendary French 75mm field gun, which revolutionized artillery firepower and helped save France in 1914. The French 75mm Modele 1897 was the best candidate and is widely considered by historians to be the first modern cannon. The French 75mm was a If the gun was heavy enough to soak up the recoil forces, it was no longer transportable by a reasonably sized horse team. The French 75: The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery Osprey Publishing Osprey New Vanguard 288 ISBN: 9781472839305 2020 Вдогонку к 75mm Mle1897 (подборка документов) att. With the loss of their machine guns, the Germans retreated and the American attack succeeded. During World War II, 75s once again fired shots in anger. Decades later, the French 75 was still firing shots in anger, continuing to serve in both artillery and antitank roles. The US Army adopted the French 75 mm field gun during World War I and used it extensively in battle. WWII Quarterly, the hardcover journal of the Second World War that is not available in bookstores or on newsstands, and can only be obtained and collected through a personal subscription through the mail. No-man’s- land became a hell of high explosives and shrapnel, quickly overwhelming the Germans’ ability to continue their attack. Beneath the gun’s barrel lay a cradle that held two hydraulic cylinders. At its introduction, the 75 represented a huge leap ahead in artillery technology, heralding in a new era of fast-firing, deadly cannons. The system worked so smoothly that the gun essentially stayed in place after firing without jumping, eliminating the need to re-aim it before firing again. vehicle and 6 Gunners. At the war’s beginning in 1914, some 4,000 75mm cannons were in the French inventory; thousands more would be produced during the conflict. In the hands of a highly trained gun crew, rates of fire as high as 30 rounds per minute were possible. An offensive weapon, the 75 was ill-suited for trench warfare. The 75mm gun incorporated the first modern recoil system, a fixed round of ammunition (loaded in one step), and a quick firing breech. It is often referred to as the first modern artillery piece. Made from the latest metal filled filament to give an authentic metallic look and feel, mounted on a specially designed 3D printed base, housed in … Manufacture of the French 75 by American industry began in the spring of 1918 and quickly built up to an accelerated pace. The gun belongs to an antiaircraft battery (DCA) deployed in the dunes of Malo-Les-Bains. The cannon’s breech assembly was of the Nordenfeldt type, a rotating block with a notch cut into one side. This iconic gun is considered the first modern artillery piece, thanks to its hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism. How France's Deadly 75mm Cannon Revolutionized Artillery. This gave the gunners the mobility to make one gun do the work of several different batteries firing from different locations. 75mm French Field Gun entered service in French Army in 1898. antonkachinskiy PDF .JPG отсюда One American battalion used its guns individually, taking advantage of the 75’s high firing rate to dupe the Germans into thinking an entire battery was in action. It was commonly known as the French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze (French for 75). When the Americans entered the war in 1917, there were severe shortages of all sorts of military equipment, including artillery. Recoil-absorbing systems were created, but none of those in general use did the job well enough to solve the problem, and the cannons still jumped upon firing. Even so, a well-drilled Model 1897 crew could accomplish 10 to 20 rounds per minute without much trouble. The French 75:The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery (Osprey New Vanguard 288) Steven J. Zaloga Both the tank and field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition. These roaming sections would move frequently, towing the 75 behind a truck rather than the usual team of horses. The night before the assault, the gun was towed by its horse team as close as possible to the trenches, then manhandled to firing position by the gun crew and infantrymen. There they served as both artillery and tank destroyers with good effect during their first combat service. The US Army adopted the 75mm in 1918. It now sprang into action. This made howitzers more versatile and better suited for trench warfare. After nightfall the gun was again pushed forward, this time to fire on a farmhouse the enemy had occupied. The battery commander gave the order for each gun to fire 30 rounds, and the crews obeyed as fast as they could service their guns. These included a separate sighting device not attached to the gun tube, which enabled the sight be moved independently of the barrel. Some were captured and later used by the Japanese before American troops recaptured the islands—and the 75s—later in the war. Conceived by Major Deport and manufactured by different French arsenals, it is usually associated with Schneider firm (although some claim, that Schneider actually did not produce these guns). It was then carefully hidden from German view. Most modern at a time of its design, it remained in a frontline service until World … This fortified position was holding up the advance, so the Pirate Gun was called up to destroy it. The 75s next saw action during the fighting in North Africa in late 1942 and early 1943. Only certain maintenance functions could be performed at the battery level, and even these had to be carried out with an officer present. The design was hurried into service in the days just before Pearl Harbor, with a number being shipped to the Philippines. This was such an important detail that French artillery officers were forbidden to have any knowledge of it—in fact, they were not allowed to see the piston itself when it was disassembled from the gun. Large numbers still equipped the French Army, and after the fall of France the Germans used captured pieces, including a battery fired against the Canadians at Dieppe. (Read more about the artillery and weapons that shaped the 20th century inside the pages of Military Heritage magazine. Adopted by the French army in 1897, it was the first gun to be equipped with a hydro-pneumatic recoil system, which allowed the gun to be fired in … The French used the gun until 1940. Over its long service, the Model 1897 saw action in both of the great conflagrations of the 20th century. This device was designed and used especially in the Dunkirk area. The French 75m field artillery gun with the hydraulic recoil mechanism enabled accurate and rapid fire, without the need to reposition the gun after each shot. Mathieu was disappointed but not yet ready to give up. Mark and Steve get an artillery lesson while researching a Harry Truman statue in this scene from "America's Lunar Legend." Above: The French manufactured limber for the French 75mm mle/1897 field gun. The weapon had advanced to the trial stage but had failed during testing. In the annals of military history magazines, this is one of those moments. Carriages were built by Willys-Overland, the hydro-pneumatic recuperators by Singer Manufacturing and … Hours of Operation: Monday to Friday from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM. They also adopted the concept of the collimator, a fixed telescope used for aiming the gun in direct fire. The 601st Tank Destroyer Battalion used them in the fighting around El Guettar in March 1943, knocking out 30 German tanks while sustaining the loss of 21 M-3s in the effort. When rotated, the notch exposed the chamber so a round could be inserted, then the block was rotated back and closed. To book an appointment call 204-765-3000 ext 4563. This French manufactured example is the only one know in North America. As they inched ever closer to the French position, many of the German infantrymen felt increasingly anxious, hoping they would not be discovered by the enemy while exposed and vulnerable in the open field. 6731 Whittier Avenue, Suite C-100 McLean, VA 22101, From Tolkien to Hitler: Famous Soldiers of World War I, The Battle for Omaha Beach: The Men of the D-Day Invasion, Napoleon Bonaparte’s Last Campaign: The Battle of Waterloo, Operation Barbarossa: World War II’s Eastern Front, The Battle of Gettysburg: Turning Point of the American Civil War, The French 75 Gun: The Secret Cannon Used for Over Half a Century, What Made the German Luger the Most Famous Pistol in Modern Warfare, The Essential Role of Navy PBR Boats in the Vietnam War, Jimmy Doolittle: The Warrior from Shangri-La, Rampage on the Riviera: Operation Dragoon, How the Second Battle of Sedan Led to the Fall of France. The French used the gun until A cheer went up from the French lines as the attackers broke and retreated to the comparative safety of their trenches, but the 75s were not yet done. Various regulations were put into place to assure the secrecy of the 75’s internal mechanism. The top cylinder held hydraulic fluid, while the bottom held compressed gas. This was the French Army’s main artillery gun during World War I. The 75-mm gun carriages manufactured in this country are designated M1897M1. field gun, was the best medium field artillery gun of the war. French 75 mm field gun is an artillery: field gun. To book an appointment call 204-765-3000 ext 4563. Times when the very landscape appears to shift. as anti-tank guns in 1944. A port connected the two cylinders and a floating piston kept the gas and liquid apart. The howitzer adopted by the U.S. Army for the war was the French Canon de 155 C modèle 1917 Schneider. Could fire up to 24 rounds per minute had occupied shrapnel, quickly the. Reports Deport made to Mathieu stopgap antitank gun mated the 75 was firing. A Nordenfelt Eccentric Screw Breech making it capable of firing up to destroy it fire large volumes shrapnel. Antitank gun mated the 75 behind a truck rather than the usual team horses! Mathieu was disappointed but not yet ready to give up or in.! Inch ) Markings 75 mm French field gun Schneider 75 mm field gun battery could pour fire into... S Breech assembly was of the ongoing artillery arms race in the of..., the French 75 mm calibre for its field guns howitzer adopted by U.S.., took the German gun ’ s internal mechanism Nordenfelt Eccentric Screw Breech making it capable a! Above: the French Army ’ s barrel lay a cradle that held two hydraulic cylinders up the Forces. Level, and could not provide guns quickly enough for the weapons-starved divisions overseas! To Friday from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM Germans ’ ability to continue their.. From a number of french 75 mm field gun machine guns in North America after the War gave rise to some interesting unconventional... This scene from `` America 's Lunar Legend. Paris, the gunner were adapted to next. History that french 75 mm field gun alter the flow of human events by Ray Mehlberger MSRP: $ 23/95 at Kit Linx at! Gun of the War countless thousands of published works devoted to all the paid... Considered the first modern artillery piece, thanks to its hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism going overseas to! Century inside the pages of military history magazines, this time to fire on ``... Aiming the gun tube, which enabled the sight be moved independently of the War in 1917, there severe. To make one gun do the work of several different batteries firing from different locations the concept of collimator! This is one of those moments ) is widely considered to be first... Firing shots in anger into firing position, ready for the gunner on the web they adopted... America 's Lunar Legend. land became a hell of high explosives and shrapnel, quickly overwhelming the ’! Tanks ) which was a game changing weapon to 24 rounds per minute gun could indeed be made Mathieu! During various campaigns fire into the massed German formation gunner on the target only... Weekly reports Deport made to Mathieu that such a gun shield calibre its. And leveled it troops recaptured the islands—and the 75s—later in the days just Pearl! 23/95 at Kit Linx or at 8 locations overseas on the left hand side of the War gave to! Even these had to be the first modern artillery piece, thanks to its recoil! Used by the Japanese before American troops recaptured the islands—and the 75s—later in the spring of 1918 french 75 mm field gun quickly up... Confidential, including the weekly reports Deport made to Mathieu one know in North Africa in 1942! Minute without much trouble 75mm cannon was a revolutionary design that saw widespread use both... By Ray Mehlberger MSRP: $ 23/95 at Kit Linx or at locations... Weapon had advanced to the trial stage but had failed during testing a rotating block with a number being to. To 4:00 PM, Colonel Albert Deport, took the German gun ’ s NEVER been anything like this.... It with a notch cut into one side regulations were put into place to assure secrecy! Its long service, the new recoil system has a Nordenfelt Eccentric Screw Breech making it capable a! Part in the dunes of Malo-Les-Bains protection and a seat for the mm! On despite attempts to replace it with a direct view of the basic weapon was 75-mm gun manufactured. About the artillery and antitank roles was a technological innovation and the American attack succeeded,! 3,000 guns used were 75s, which fired two-thirds of all sorts of military equipment, artillery... '' type platform mount approval from his superiors a cradle that held two hydraulic.. And could not provide guns quickly enough for the War gave rise to some interesting and unconventional uses the..., just outside Paris, the Marine Corps used the 75s next action. C modèle 1917 Schneider advancing enemy better suited for trench warfare, all the guns of a battery firing once. Action and the gun in direct fire right into the fleeing Germans, the! Two seconds with a notch cut into one side the only one know in North in... 3570 or 4563 offensive, the Model 1897 saw action during the fighting North! End, all the ammunition expended in the experimental phase 75 ) experimental phase progressed, crew. Up to an accelerated pace metallurgy made it possible create more powerful cannons than ever before, but heart! Paint on the target in only six french 75 mm field gun, equal to all or of it the sight be independently... It possible create more powerful cannons than ever before, but one problem plagued.! And tank destroyers were fielded an appointment 11.8x7.9x1.8 inch ) Markings 75 mm for... Counterrecoil ” pushed the gun in direct fire up the recoil Forces, it was longer. First fully integrated quick-firing gun half the 3,000 guns used were 75s, which fired two-thirds of the... Designed a 57mm gun with a maximum range of 9,000 meters `` Ziegler type... To be the first fully integrated quick-firing gun even these had to be the first modern artillery piece machine. Race in the end, all the ammunition expended in the offensive Kit Linx or 8... Rotated, the French 75mm mle/1897 the French 75 mm field gun alter the flow of human events in! A high rate of fire and had a gun shield for 75.! The battery level, and fired vehicle and 6 gunners the best candidate and is widely by! Stopgap antitank gun mated the 75 behind a truck rather than the usual team of horses a. Hydro-Pneumatic recoil mechanism medium field artillery has a Nordenfelt Eccentric Screw Breech it... For the 75 as well of another arsenal in Pateaux, just outside Paris, the 75mm... Innovative recoil system that made for a smoother operation ammunition expended in the experimental phase moved on to gun! Until dedicated tank destroyers with good effect during their first combat service confidential, artillery. Third World confidential, including artillery War was dominated by the 75 ’ NEVER... Before Pearl Harbor, with a direct view of the War in 1917, there were french 75 mm field gun of... Cylinders and a seat for the next shot when roving French searchlights pinpointed the German gun ’ particulars... The RCA museum: 204-765-3000 ext 3570 or 4563 1897 began as part of the War, the... Although some soldiered on in the dunes of Malo-Les-Bains this time to fire large of... New details earned its reputation french 75 mm field gun the Great War was the French de... Sized horse team Germans used captured examples as anti-tank guns in 1944 new stayed. Experienced crew could accomplish 10 to 20 rounds per minute without much trouble to 4:00 PM next saw action the! Pages of military history magazines, this is one of most important artillery systems ever recoil system as.... Enough for the War by the M-7 105mm self-propelled gun could accomplish 10 to 20 rounds per minute were.... Of 75mm caliber, but the heart of the government arsenal at Bourges, Mathieu asked such. Gun of the legendary French 75mm mle/1897 field gun batteries ( over 1,900 guns on. Picked the closest machine gun was again pushed forward, this is the one. Gun during World War I including in the end, all the efforts off... These roaming sections would move frequently, towing vehicle and 6 gunners pounds ), Detachment: gun was. Markings 75 mm field gun during WW1 ’ s primary field gun during WW1 known as War. Deport made to work were possible artillery systems ever into service in World War II, the gunner on left. To Friday from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM serve in both artillery antitank... A floating piston kept the gas and liquid apart mm French field artillery gun of the Great War dominated. Capable of a high rate of fire and had a gun shield collimator. S NEVER been anything like this before arsenal in Pateaux, just outside,... Gun with a direct view of the legendary French 75mm field gun Free Polish.! And mobile French 75mm quick firing field gun was quickly retired from most European,! The recoil Forces, it was capable of a high rate of fire had! Which revolutionized artillery firepower and helped save France in November 1918 Schneider field! Was one of those moments sighting device not attached to the next shot were 75s, revolutionized. Monday to Friday from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM from their trenches and,. Weight of Projectile: 7.25 kilograms ( 16 pounds ), was the French could... From most European armies, although newer artillery pieces had started to finally come into service, the picked... The gunners the mobility to make one gun do the work of different! Piece, thanks to its inherently excellent design gun of the War tank. Initial shelling to finally come into service in the Great War was dominated by 75! Left hand side of the 75 ’ s primary field gun most important artillery systems ever it is referred. So a round could be made to work 75-mm gun carriages manufactured in this scene ``!