TM 9-305 Technical Manual 75-MM Gun Matériel, M1897 and Modifications.  At the Armistice there were 29 guns in service in Britain. Equipped American and British vehicles such as the Medium Tank M4, the later models of the Medium Tank M3 and the Churchill III/IV (scavenged from General Sherman tanks in the North African theatre). American industry built 1,050 French 75s during World War I, but only 143 had been shipped to France by 11 November 1918; most American batteries used French-built 75s in action. In 1953, an Israeli military delegation visited France to examine the then-new AMX-13/75 light tank, which was armed with the high-velocity CN 75-50 75 mm tank gun. The US 75 mm gun tank gun M2 and the later M3 were the standard American tank guns of the Second World War.  Carriages were built by Willys-Overland, the hydro-pneumatic recuperators by Singer Manufacturing Company and Rock Island Arsenal, the cannon itself by Symington-Anderson and Wisconsin Gun Company.  When the French Army discarded its 105 HM2 howitzers to replace them with MO-120-RT mortars, only 155mm artillery pieces remained, for which no blank cartridges were available. They also learned that Krupp was considering introducing the system after testing it. , It took five more years under the overall leadership of Mathieu's successor, General Deloye, to perfect and finally adopt in March 1898 an improved and final version of the Deport 75 mm long-recoil field gun. The gun's barrel slid back on rollers, including a set at the muzzle, when the shot was fired. During World War 2 these guns also used Costinescu 75 mm anti-tank round. The field gun origins of the ordnance and ammunition ensured that the M2/3/6 series HE round was highly effective for its caliber. The upgrade was made with removable barrels. There is a perception that Saint-Chamond somehow used their own 75mm gun without permission and the royalties for the gun went to Lt.Col. Another 6 horses pulled each additional limber and caisson which were assigned to each gun. Their contribution was a leakproof hydro-pneumatic long-recoil mechanism which they named "Frein II" (Brake # II). Each Mle 1897 75 mm field gun battery (4 guns) was manned by highly trained crews of 170 men led by 4 officers recruited among graduates of engineering schools. The venerable soixante-quinze was a decent anti-tank gun but was heavy and much harder to conceal than the newer, small, high-velocity, small calibre anti-tank weapons. The 75mm tank gun has its origins in the famous French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 field gun of World War I fame which was also adopted by the United States and used well into World War II as the 75mm M1897 field gun. The armored caissons were designed to be tilted in order to present the shells horizontally to the crews. 1897. During the breakout from Normandy American and British forces encountered the new generation of heavy German tanks and armored vehicles such as the Panther tank, Tiger I tank and Jagdpanzer IV tank destroyer in quantity for the first time. The 75mm Regimental Gun M121 is an American light, high-velocity dual purpose rifled gun. However, this is just a myth. Some French guns were modernized between the wars, in part to adapt them for anti-tank fire, resulting in the Canon de 75 Mle 1897/33 which fired a high-explosive anti-tank shell. For this role the tank gun required good general-purpose performance but anti-tank capability was not paramount. Accordingly, General Mathieu turned to Lt. The French Army had to wait until early 1917 to receive in numbers fast-firing heavy artillery equipped with hydraulic recoil brakes (e.g. 2) Self-contained ammunition, with the powder charge in a brass case which also held the shell. The independent sight had also been perfected for easy field use by the crews, and a nickel-steel shield was added to protect the gunners. However, its shells were comparatively light and lacked the power to obliterate trench works, concrete bunkers and deeply buried shelters. Thus, with time, the French 75 batteries became routinely used to cut corridors with high-explosive shells, across the belts of German barbed wire. 3-4 rpm sustained (dependent on rate of cooling), A 5.3-kilogram (12 lb) impact-detonated, thin-walled steel, high-explosive (HE) shell with a time-delay, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 14:25. The total production of 75 mm shells during World War I exceeded 200 million rounds, mostly by private industry. Colonel Joseph-Albert Deport, at the time the Director of the Atelier de Construction de Puteaux (APX), and asked him whether he could construct a gun on the general principle of the Haussner long-cylinder recoil without infringing the existing patents. The major difference of ATG is specialized gun carriage. Because of the gun's traversing ability, the greater the distance to the enemy concentration, the wider the area that could be swept. gun. The M3 75mm gets a lot of flak thrown at it by ignorant people who think it was a low velocity gun that could not penetrate armor. This allowed it to be used in an anti-aircraft role. Extensive trials, however, revealed that it was still prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the long-recoil mechanism. When the barrel recoiled, the piston was pulled back by the barrel's recoil and thus pushed the oil through a small orifice and into a second cylinder placed underneath. In March of 1945 he wrote to the commanding generals of both the US 2nd and 3rdArmored Divisions on the subject of the Panther, stating: From time to time I find short stories where some reporter is purpor… The French 75 set the pattern for almost all early-20th century field pieces, with guns of mostly 75 mm forming the basis of many field artillery units into the early stages of World War II. A battery included 160 horses, most of them pulling ammunition as well as repair and supply caissons. The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898. , In June 1940, with many British field guns lost in the Battle of France, 895 M1897 field guns and a million rounds of ammunition were purchased from the US Army. 1) Vieille's smokeless powder, which was introduced in 1884. Translated to English and republished by US Army War College 1917, Notes on the French 75-mm Gun. Krupp would later reject Haussner's invention, due to insoluble technical problems caused by hydraulic fluid leakage. 1903. The gun was officially adopted on 28 March 1898 under the name "Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897". Canister was used primarily in the Pacific. Over 3,500 were modified with a muzzle brake and mounted on a 5 cm Pak 38 carriage, now named 7.5 cm Pak 97/38 they were used by the Wehrmacht in 1942 as an emergency weapon against the Soviet Union's T-34 and KV tanks. THEFRENCH75-MM.GUN. The US decided early in World War I to switch from 3-inch (76 mm) to 75 mm calibre for its field guns. It was also in service with the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), which had been supplied with about 2,000 French 75 field guns.  This rate of fire, the gun's accuracy, and the lethality of the ammunition against personnel, made the French 75 superior to all other regimental field artillery at the time. FROM "L'ECOLE DU COMMANDANT DU BATTERIE, I PARTIE, CANON 75", Of THE FRENCH ARTILLERY SCHOOL, OF DECEMBER, 1916, CORRECTED TO MARCH, 1917. But even before the 57 entered testing, in 1890 General Mathieu, Director of Artillery at the Ministry of War, had been informed that Konrad Haussner, a German engineer working at the Ingolstadt arsenal, had patented an oil-and-compressed-air long-recoil system. A major improvement was the placement of improved silver-alloy rings on the freely moving piston which separated the compressed air and the hydraulic fluid inside the main hydro-pneumatic recoil cylinder. History. Rimailho. The 75s also became widely used as truck mounted anti-aircraft artillery. By 1918 the 75s became the main agents of delivery for toxic gas shells. I don't think this 3 inch gun he trained on is a French gun. A version used on the early Medium Tank M3. After reviewing the blueprints in February 1892, the French artillery engineers advised that a gun should be produced without purchasing the Haussner invention. … These were retrofitted with new turrets housing French 75mm/.62-caliber high-velocity … Bringing down the wheel anchors tied to the braking system was called "abattage".  Manufacture of the French 75 by American industry began in the spring of 1918 and quickly built up to an accelerated pace.  There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. Uses the same ammunition and has the same ballistics as the M3. fieldgun,popularlyknownasthesoixante … Various deceptions, some of them linked to the Dreyfus Case which erupted in 1894, had been implemented by Deloye and French counter-intelligence to distract German espionage.. The armor piercing cap,made of a softer metal, helped to prevent shell shatter at higher velocities and against sloped and "face-hardened" armor. In the 1930s the French Army sought a replacement for the derivatives of the 75 mm mle 1897 field gun it used as an anti-tank gun. The penetration according to France is more than 40% higher than the German evaluation. This 6.76 kg (14.9 lb) round travelled at 625 m/s (2,050 ft/s) and contained 1.5 pounds of TNT filling and choice of Super Quick (SQ) or Delay (PD) with 0.05 or 0.15 seconds of delay fuse. While the tank's main gun was considered satisfactory, its armor was deemed to be too light. The French 75 introduced a new concept in artillery technology: rapid firing without realigning the gun after each shot. The western allies countered by equipping increasing numbers of M4 Medium tanks with the 76 mm gun M1 for the Americans and the Ordnance QF 17 pounder for the British. field gun…  The basic, unmodified gun was known in British service as "Ordnance, QF, 75mm Mk 1", although many of the guns were issued to units on converted or updated mountings. By 1944 this had become the standard British tank gun equipping the Cromwell tank and Churchill tank for the campaigns in northwest Europe. My father trained on the 3 inch gun while originally with the tank destroyers. The 76mm gun was also able to fire shells at a higher velocity. U.S. armored doctrine in World War II saw the tank as a deep-attack or exploitation vehicle. This moring I you tubed 88mm flak gun and saw it … After 1915 and the onset of trench warfare, other types of battlefield missions demanding impact-detonated high-explosive shells prevailed. When the German 7.5 cm Pak 40 became available in sufficient numbers, most remaining Pak 97/38 pieces were returned to occupied France to reinforce the Atlantic Wall defenses or were supplied to Axis nations like Romania (PAK 97/38) and Hungary. This was actually a APCBCHE-T or Armor Piercing, Capped, Ballistic-Capped, High Explosive Tracer type round which contained a tracer element so the gunner could follow the trajectory of the round to make corrections for the next shot if necessary. Several types of guns of close caliber were barreled to use the best ammunition available for 75 mm caliber, explosive projectile model 1917 "Schneider". 15-30 rpm burst (dependent on crew training and fatigue) These and other modifications achieved the desired result: the long-term retention of hydraulic fluid and compressed air inside the recoil system, even under the worst field conditions.  In the case of Verdun, over 1,000 French 75s (250 batteries) were constantly in action, night and day, on the battlefield during a period of nearly nine months. The forerunner of the French 75 was an experimental 57 mm gun which was first assembled in September 1891 at the Bourges arsenal under the direction of a Captain Sainte-Claire Deville. 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